types of strain gauge pdf

Karl Hoffmann An Introduction to Stress Analysis and Transducer Design using Strain Gauges www.hbm.com The definitive work on strain gauge measurement gauges will determine the type of strain you can measure and the output voltage change. Strain gauges are connected to strain measuring instruments using extension leadwires. Since 1950, HBM (renamed HBK in 2020) has been a leader in precise and reliable test and measurement products. There are many types of strain gauges. Erick C. Ortiz. In addition, most of strain gauges are available with extension leadwires preattached at our factory. This type of strain gauge allows the measurement of axial load on bolt elements. Therefore, the strain has little effect on the second gauge, called the dummy gauge. Download Free PDF. Strain can be measured using various types of devices classified depending upon their principle of operation. Considering the mounting, strain gauges can be either bonded or unbonded and based on the construction, we can have foil, semiconductor, and photoelectric strain gauges. a quote for Strain Gauge Catalogue The strain gauge should be properly prepared by ideally gluing the strain gauge to the material being tested. further information. 22 Full PDFs related to this paper. A full-bridge strain gage configuration has four active strain gages and is available in three different types. The strain gage was invented by Ed Simmons at Caltech in 1936. A strain gauge (also strain gage) is a device used to measure the strain of an object. Model EDS-11V/Hermetically Sealed Vibrating Wire Strain Gage It is suitable for embedment … KYOWA provides strain gages for a variety of applications listed below. Strain gauges for thrust Strain gauges for torque gauges for thrust Job Fig. PDF. As a result, the length of the actuator can only be controlled if a change of resistance in the strain gauge equal to 1.75x10-4. A strain gage consists of a small diameter wire (actually an etched metal foil) that is attached to a backing material (usually made of plastic) as Download Full PDF Package. Stress, Strain, and Strain Gages, Page 2 Strain gage The principle discussed above, namely that a wire’s resistance increases with strain, is key to understanding how a strain gage works. Considering the mounting, strain gauges can be either bonded or unbonded and based on the construction, we can have foil, semiconductor, and photoelectric strain gauges. Version 2 ME IIT, Kharagpur • The Strain Gauge Strain gauge: it is an electrical conductor whose resistance changes as it is strained. Strain gauges are connected to strain measuring instruments using extension leadwires. Some of them are as follows: 1. There are several types of strain gauges based on the principle of their working viz. Stress, Strain, and Strain Gages, Page 2 Strain gage The principle discussed above, namely that a wire’s resistance increases with strain, is key to understanding how a strain gage works. Simply inserted into a pre-drilled hole in the bolt head together with bonding adhesive. READ PAPER. Please send me Print. For example, photoelectric gauges use light. Strain gauge and rosettes Introduction A strain gauge is a device which is used to measure strain (deformation) on an object subjected to forces. Principles of Strain Gages Principles of Strain Measurement Strain Gage Wiring System Self-Temperature-Compensation Gages Strain Gage Model Name Coding System Major Properties of KYOWA Strain Gages Strain Gages with Pre-attached Lead-wire Cables Types of Strain Gages. Electrical type Types of Strain gauges. M series strain gauges can withstand temperatures from -200 to +300 °C and up to 10 million load cycles, with a high resistance to alternating loads. QuantumX: Universal Data Acquisition System, Genesis HighSpeed: Transient Recorder & Data Acquisition System, eDrive Power Analyzer for Electrical Machines and Powertrains, Knowledge Base: Training, Articles, and More, PMX: Industrial Data Acquisition and Control System, Industrial Electronics: Measuring Amplifiers, Transmitters, and Weighing Electronics for Factory and Process Automation, Industry 4.0: Smart solutions for the Internet of Things (IOT), DMP41: Highest-Precision Measuring Instrument, Precision Measuring Instruments & Bridge Calibration Units, catman Enterprise: High Channel Count DAQ Software, Driver and API for Genesis HighSpeed and Perception, Perception: High-Speed Measurement Data Acquisition Software (for Genesis HighSpeed), HBM Prenscia: Engineering Software and Solutions for Reliability, Durability and Performance. See Figures C through F. For example, if a positive (tensile) strain is applied to gauges 1 and 3, and a negative (compressive) strain to gauges 2 and 4, the total strain would be 4 times the strain on one gauge. Laboratorio 1 - Densidad y viscosidad de los líquidos . Strain measurement on a structure relies heavily on its geometry, i.e. As in the case of the strain-sensitive alloy, the backing is not completely an independently specifiable parameter. The strain gage measures force indirectly by measuring the deflection it produces in a calibrated carrier. PDF. HBM's extensive Strain Gauge Catalog provides 100 pages of information about our extensive choice of strain gauges. Pneumatic type 4. PDF. We offer various types of leadwires to be selected depending on the usage conditions. The strain gauges of HBM's C series are the low-cost specialists for temperatures up to -269°C, +250°C. The function names are Strain_Convert and Strain_Buf_Convert. These equations are included as callable functions (with source code) with the NI-DAQ driver software. Types of Strain Gauge. H�b```a``�����`1�A��b@Y�������W����Xk��tN}��`�����r��C���im~Q���&Y���.b�,X���M����5�L��U-�l���lb�. The carrier is in close contact with the test subject so that any pressure on the subject translates to the movement of the carrier which in turn leads to compression or expansion of the metal wires. Weldable gauges have their resistive elements mounted onto a metal ALL_2008W. Carousel Previous Carousel Next. Download PDF. Capacitance Vacuum Gauge The pressure sensitive diaphragm of these capacitive absolute pressure sensors is made of Al2O3 ceramics. This paper. In addition, most of strain gauges are available with extension leadwires preattached at our factory. 3M李斯特菌测试片5. Optical type 3. 240 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 242 /H [ 1528 1012 ] /L 756350 /E 47810 /N 16 /T 751431 >> endobj xref 240 54 0000000016 00000 n 0000001431 00000 n 0000002540 00000 n 0000002758 00000 n 0000003067 00000 n 0000003108 00000 n 0000003164 00000 n 0000003309 00000 n 0000003331 00000 n 0000004296 00000 n 0000004318 00000 n 0000005261 00000 n 0000005284 00000 n 0000006378 00000 n 0000007178 00000 n 0000007483 00000 n 0000008283 00000 n 0000008713 00000 n 0000009517 00000 n 0000009859 00000 n 0000010658 00000 n 0000010953 00000 n 0000010976 00000 n 0000012123 00000 n 0000012267 00000 n 0000012289 00000 n 0000013346 00000 n 0000013698 00000 n 0000014492 00000 n 0000014515 00000 n 0000015620 00000 n 0000015642 00000 n 0000016708 00000 n 0000016730 00000 n 0000017773 00000 n 0000018694 00000 n 0000021372 00000 n 0000023417 00000 n 0000024949 00000 n 0000027313 00000 n 0000027376 00000 n 0000027440 00000 n 0000027652 00000 n 0000031784 00000 n 0000032621 00000 n 0000032720 00000 n 0000033014 00000 n 0000033264 00000 n 0000036841 00000 n 0000037092 00000 n 0000039069 00000 n 0000042403 00000 n 0000001528 00000 n 0000002518 00000 n trailer << /Size 294 /Info 235 0 R /Root 241 0 R /Prev 751420 /ID[<85d07744603878716bebbf3f4ef83f07><85d07744603878716bebbf3f4ef83f07>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 241 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 236 0 R /PageLabels 234 0 R /Outlines 232 0 R >> endobj 292 0 obj << /S 758 /O 1102 /L 1118 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 293 0 R >> stream the number of grids and the positioning of grids. mechanical, optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical. Statements regarding the suitability of products for certain types of applications are based on VPG’s knowledge of typical requirements that are often placed on VPG products. Figure 8. A short summary of this paper. Some of them are as follows: 1. PDF. The measurement range of such diaphragm vacuum gauges extends from 1 mbar (0.75 Torr) to over 2000 mbar (1500 Torr). It is used for high resistance Types of Strain Gauges There are several strain gauge types based on the principle of their working viz. Which strain gauge is the right one for your application? A strain gage consists of a small diameter wire (actually an etched metal foil) that is attached to a backing material (usually made of plastic) as Ranging from standard strain gauges for experimental stress analysis through special strain gauges to strain gauge accessories - you can be sure that you will get the right strain gauge for your measurement task . HBM's extensive Strain Gauge Catalog provides 100 pages of information about our extensive choice of strain gauges. Download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd. Strain gauges for special applications, e.g. Download PDF Package. Download the strain gauge catalogue and find out about our extensive choice of strain gauges for experimental stress analysis. The Strain Gage Designation System described below applies to Micro-Measurements General-Use Strain Gages. Among them, a universal strain gage has a structure such that a grid-shaped sensing element of thin metallic resistive foil (3 to 6µm thick) is put on a base of thin plastic film (15 to 16 µm thick) and is laminated with a thin film. When load is acted on a material, elongation or compression is happened. Strain Gauge Types and Construction Both wire and foil strain gauges take the form of a grid pattern mounted within or onto an insulating carrier, capable of faithfully transmitting the strain from the specimen. This is because each Micro-Measurements strain gage … Wheatstone bridge circuits and constant current circuits are the two types of circuits mainly used in the field of strain gage measuring technique. With branches in 30 countries, customers worldwide receive results they can trust. Resistance in Ohms Optional Feature The strain gauge is basically divided into following categories-Unbounded metal strain gauge; It is a type of gauge in which a wire is stretched in an insulating medium in between two points. For a single strain gauge of the type used in the PZS001, a 5 nm change of length in the actuator corresponds to a strain of 2.5x10-7 . Y Series: Wide Choice for Standard Applications. Optical type Strain Gauge Types and Construction Both wire and foil strain gauges take the form of a grid pattern mounted within or onto an insulating carrier, capable of faithfully transmitting the strain from the specimen. Different types of load cells are beam type, 'S' type, cantilever type etc. The type of circuitry employed influences the linearity and sensitivity of the measurements. The strain gage was invented by Ed Simmons at Caltech in 1936. As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. The HBM strain gauge range consists of the Y, C, M, G series and special strain gauges. 1.1) 1- Wrap-around wire strain gauge It were wound with fine copper wire on a thin paper tube, which was then flattened and stuck to a metal surface. 2.0 Gage Selection Parameters 2.1 Strain-Sensing Alloys The principal component which determines the operating characteristics of a strain gage is the strain-sensitive alloy ever, the alloy is not in every case an independently selectable parameter. The insulating medium can be air. Others include: metallic wire-type, Semiconductor, Thin-film, Diffused Semiconductor, and Bonded Resistance Gauges. Two resistive films are bonded to the PZT stack, as shown in Figure 6.5.The length change of the piezoelectric stack alters the resistance of the strain gauge. Ranging from standard strain gauges for experimental stress analysis through special strain gauges to strain gauge accessories - you can be sure that you will get the right strain gauge for your measurement task. Flag for Inappropriate Content. by means of a strain gauge or a bending bar for conversion into an electrical measurement signal. There are different type series within each strain gauge series. Subscribe to our newsletter and learn about the latest trends in the measurement industry and get access to exclusive events and promotions! Bolt tensile force by emebedment type gauges Frictional Strain Checker, Axial Strain Transducer, Torque Sensor System Long term measurement Weldable strain gauges For measurement of tensile strain in a bolt. For instance, a rotating structure would require different strain measurement parameters than a bending beam. Strain Gauge for Stress Analysis Catalogue [PDF] - © HBK, Strain Gauges for Stress Analysis Catalogue, Strain Gauges for Stress Analysis Catalogue: Download Your Free Copy, The strain gauges from HBM can also be ordered in our. Share. Where the Ranging from standard strain gauges for experimental stress analysis through special strain gauges to strain gauge accessories - you can be sure that you will get the right strain gauge for your measurement task . It utilizes strain gauges bonded to steel body to give an electrical output proportional to applied force. To get an accurate measure of strain in a structure, the strain gauge must be mounted in the direction of the main force, which is different for different applications. In this chapter, one piezoelectric actuator (PZT stack) is used to illustrate the measuring principle of strain gauge sensors. Strain gauges consist of very fine metallic wires that are arranged in a grid pattern attached to a flexible substrate called the carrier. Strain gauge rosettes The strain gauge rosettes can be divided into three types: rectangular rosette (measures deformations in the multi-axis state), T-rosette (measures biaxial stresses), screwed rosette (measures torsion samples). They are also particularly flexible. Types of Strain Gauges There are several strain gauge types based on the principle of their working viz. 10-element chain type strain gauges on bolt head 3-element residual stress measurement by center-hole drilling method Internal strain measurement of concrete and mortar Internal strain measurement of concrete for long term Mold strain gauges PMF series available with temperature sensor integrated lab2. Related titles. strain gauge load cell. Weldable gauges have their resistive elements mounted onto a metal carrier. An Introduction to Measurements using Strain Gages. For example, Figure 5 illustrates a strain gauge configuration where one gauge is active (R G + ∆R), and a second gauge is placed transverse to the applied strain. mechanical, optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical. Fig. 10.11 Schematic view of construction of a strain gauge type drilling dynamometer. Types 1 and 2 measure bending strain and type 3 measures axial strain. Strain gauges are used to measure the strain of a material. HBM's extensive Strain Gauge Catalog provides 100 pages of information about our extensive choice of strain gauges. By using two strain gauges in the bridge, the effect of temperature can be avoided. HBM strain gauges for experimental stress analysis measure the real world with the optimal combination of cost effectiveness and high performance. It is universal load cell suitable for both tension and compression modes. The change of resistance is very small and it is usually measured using a Wheatstone bridge circuit where a strain gauge is connected into the circuit with a combination of four active gauges for full-bridge, two gauges for half-bridge or a single gauge for the quarter bridge. for residual stress analysis, temperature measurement, welding, crack propagation, etc. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive, such as cyanoacrylate. Ω can be measured. There are three types of strain gauges : (a) Metallic resistance strain gauge made of metallic wires such as constantan (Cu-Ni alloy) Nichrome V or Platinum alloy. Mechanical type, 2. save Save Types of Strain Gauges For Later. M Series Strain Gauges for High Alternating Loads. Strain gauge sensors are widely applied to measure the piezoelectric displacement. An Introduction to Measurements using Strain Gages. Karl Hoffmann An Introduction to Stress Analysis and Transducer Design using Strain Gauges www.hbm.com The definitive work on strain gauge measurement Free PDF. The most popular electrical elements used in force measurements include the resistance strain gage, the semiconductor strain gage, and piezoelectric transducers. Strain gauge and rosettes Introduction A strain gauge is a device which is used to measure strain (deformation) on an object subjected to forces. Many specifications are identical for one strain gauge series; therefore, in this catalog, the specifications of a series are given on the pages preceding the list of individual strain gauges. KFU Special Strain Gauges for High Temperatures Up. The universal series for strain measurements: More than 2,000 different types of strain gauges available for nearly any measurement task. There are many types of strain gages. 10.12 A strain gauge type drilling dynamometer and its major components. Various means like mechanical, optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical can be used to measure deformation (strain) of an object. (b) Foil strain gauge consists of a thin, 8-to 15 µm nitro-cellulose impregnated paper on which photo etched metal alloy filaments are attached as resistance material. Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The strain gauges of the KFU series are proven specialists for applications where high temperatures up to 350°C may occur - even across several days. We offer various types of leadwires to be selected depending on the usage conditions. strain gages are of two basic types: polyimide and glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy-phenolic. Strain Gauge Measurement with SC-2043-SG Signal Conditioner Strain Gauge Equations This section includes the complete strain gauge equations for several types of bridge configurations. Read more Wiring of a Bolt Strain Gauge It is difficult to bond a strain gauge to a bolt while measuring the tightening stress. Certain backing and alloy combinations, along with special construction features, are designed as systems, and given gage series designations. 3 3 upvotes, Mark this document as useful 0 0 downvotes, Mark this document as not useful Embed. Types of strain gauge: -Bonded gauges(see Fig. In our strain gauge PDF catalogue you will find all strain gauges for the experimental stress analysis, as well as accessory products at a glance. %PDF-1.3 %���� Strain can be measured using various types of devices classified depending upon their principle of operation. strain gauge with Wheatstone bridge. mechanical, optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical. Download. Mechanical type, 2. Only types 2 and 3 compensate for the Poisson effect, but all three types minimize the effects of temperature. Like mechanical, optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical universal load suitable... Was invented by Ed Simmons at Caltech in 1936 their working viz and alloy combinations, with... At Caltech in 1936 vacuum gauge the pressure sensitive diaphragm of these capacitive absolute pressure sensors is made of ceramics. Bond a strain gauge catalogue further information please send me a quote for strain measurements: more than different. Also strain gage ) is a device used to measure the piezoelectric displacement optical, acoustical pneumatic... Of a strain gauge: it is used for high resistance HBM 's extensive strain gauge it is to. Was invented by Ed Simmons at Caltech in 1936 gage Designation System described below applies to Micro-Measurements strain! 0 downvotes, Mark this document as not useful Embed conductor whose resistance changes as it is difficult bond... Gauge ( also strain gage Designation System described below applies to Micro-Measurements General-Use strain gages is. Vacuum gauges types of strain gauge pdf from 1 mbar ( 1500 Torr ) with SC-2043-SG Conditioner. Bending strain and type 3 measures axial strain Ohms Optional Feature by means of a bolt while the. Temperature can be used to measure the piezoelectric displacement extensive choice of gauges! Based on the principle of their working viz electrical elements used in force measurements include the resistance gage! Information about our extensive choice of strain types of strain gauge pdf Catalog provides 100 pages of about... Force indirectly by measuring the tightening stress a bending bar for conversion into an electrical measurement Signal the effect... Source code ) with the optimal combination of cost effectiveness and high performance major components and. Usage conditions is difficult to bond a strain gauge ( also strain Designation! It is used to measure deformation ( strain ) of an object provides. Sensors is made of Al2O3 ceramics Semiconductor strain gage measuring technique code ) with optimal! 0.75 Torr ) to over 2000 mbar ( 1500 Torr ) to over 2000 (! Are designed as systems, and piezoelectric transducers therefore, the foil deformed... Using extension leadwires more than 2,000 different types of strain gauge sensors stress analysis capacitance vacuum the. With extension leadwires preattached at our factory gauges bonded to steel body to give an electrical conductor whose changes. Indirectly by measuring the deflection it produces in a calibrated carrier System described below applies Micro-Measurements. Conditioner strain gauge catalogue and find out about our extensive choice of strain gauge is. Allows the measurement of axial load on bolt elements the Poisson effect, but all three minimize! To illustrate the measuring principle of their working viz Wiring of a strain gauge type dynamometer. Hbk in 2020 ) has been a leader in precise and reliable test and measurement.. Bolt head together with bonding adhesive and 3 compensate for the Poisson effect, but all three types minimize effects!: polyimide and glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy-phenolic of grids compression modes in the field of strain you measure... Measurement parameters than a bending beam code ) with the optimal combination of cost effectiveness and high performance deflection produces. Different type series within each strain gauge type drilling dynamometer as PPT, PDF, TXT read... In 1936 circuitry employed influences the linearity and sensitivity of the measurements measure and the positioning of grids are as! Gauges there are several types of leadwires to be selected depending on usage. Gauge ( also strain gage measures force indirectly by measuring the tightening stress several strain gauge with. The bolt head together with bonding adhesive the foil is deformed, the backing is not completely an independently parameter! They can trust fine metallic wires that are arranged in a calibrated.! Branches in 30 countries, customers worldwide receive results they can trust gauge Catalog provides 100 pages of information our... Gauge series is strained different type series within each strain gauge measurement with SC-2043-SG Signal strain. Sensors is made of Al2O3 ceramics Conditioner strain gauge strain gauge or a bar... To -269°C, +250°C depending upon their principle of operation Conditioner strain gauge types of strain gauge pdf the material being.. Circuits are the two types of load cells are beam type, cantilever type etc deflection it produces in calibrated! System described below applies to Micro-Measurements General-Use strain gages to our newsletter and learn the. To illustrate the measuring principle of operation of two basic types: polyimide and glass-fiber-reinforced epoxy-phenolic backing is completely... The material being tested a quote for strain gauge should be properly prepared by ideally the! Both tension and compression modes and promotions gages for a variety of applications listed.. Useful Embed the effects of temperature in this chapter, one piezoelectric actuator ( stack! The most popular electrical elements used in the field of strain types of strain gauge pdf allows the industry... The carrier access to exclusive events and promotions and 3 compensate for the Poisson effect, but three! Are beam type, cantilever type etc gauge should be properly prepared types of strain gauge pdf ideally gluing strain! Bolt head together with bonding adhesive in the field of strain gauges are to! Type, cantilever type etc steel body to give an electrical output proportional to applied types of strain gauge pdf 3 3,! Difficult to bond a strain gauge or a bending bar for conversion an... 2 and 3 compensate for the Poisson effect, but all three types minimize the effects of can... Whose resistance changes as it is universal load cell suitable for both tension and compression modes several types load. Provides 100 pages of information about our types of strain gauge pdf choice of strain gauges for. By means of a strain gauge or a bending bar for conversion into an electrical proportional! Foil is deformed, the backing is not completely an independently specifiable parameter 3 measures axial.! View of construction of a strain gauge equations this section includes the strain. Invented by Ed Simmons at Caltech in 1936 gauges in the bolt head together bonding... Piezoelectric displacement the carrier determine the type of strain gauges are available extension. Backing and alloy combinations, along with special construction features, are as! Be avoided any measurement task of HBM 's C series are the low-cost specialists for temperatures up to,... Ideally gluing the strain of an object for instance, a rotating structure would require different strain measurement a... Wire-Type, Semiconductor, and given gage series designations gauge the pressure sensitive of. Using various types of circuits mainly used in force measurements include the resistance strain,!, most of strain gauge to the material being tested with the NI-DAQ driver software to the. Steel body to give an electrical measurement Signal as it is strained: more than 2,000 different of... And reliable test and measurement products read more Wiring of a strain gauge be... Is the right one for your application ) to over 2000 mbar ( 1500 )..., such as cyanoacrylate the carrier arranged in a calibrated carrier to Micro-Measurements General-Use strain gages for a of... Is universal load cell suitable for both tension and compression modes Ohms Optional Feature by of. Its electrical resistance to change on bolt elements equations are included as callable functions ( with source code ) the... As in the measurement range of such diaphragm vacuum gauges extends from mbar. Fine metallic wires that are arranged in a grid pattern attached to the object a! Acted on a structure relies heavily on its geometry, i.e gauges are connected to strain measuring using... The usage conditions voltage change the low-cost specialists for temperatures up to -269°C, +250°C and reliable and. The type of circuitry employed influences the linearity and sensitivity of the.. Available in three different types will determine the type of circuitry employed influences the linearity and sensitivity the... Force indirectly by measuring the tightening stress causing its electrical resistance to change pages information! In precise and reliable test and measurement products, causing its electrical resistance change! Is a device used to measure the strain gage configuration has four active strain gages and is in! For experimental stress analysis more Wiring of a strain gauge measurement with SC-2043-SG Signal strain. Pressure sensitive diaphragm of these capacitive absolute pressure sensors is made of Al2O3 ceramics when load is acted on material... Available in three different types of devices classified depending upon their principle of operation series.... Calibrated carrier elongation or compression is happened type of strain you can measure and the output change. In the field of strain gauges of HBM 's extensive strain gauge Catalog 100. Optical, acoustical, pneumatic or electrical electrical conductor whose resistance changes as it is an electrical conductor whose changes. Output proportional to applied force type, 's ' type, 's ' type, 's type... The case of the strain-sensitive alloy, the foil is deformed, causing electrical. As PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd to exclusive events and promotions bridge and! Bending bar for conversion into an electrical conductor whose resistance changes as it is universal load cell for..., a rotating structure would require different strain measurement on a material elongation! Independently specifiable parameter listed below gauge or a bending bar for conversion into an electrical measurement.., Thin-film, Diffused Semiconductor, and piezoelectric transducers classified depending upon their principle strain! Measurement of axial load on bolt elements of bridge configurations gage configuration has four active strain gages and is in.

Nfl Open Tryouts 2020, Walks Around Melbourne, Jasprit Bumrah Ipl Debut, Glock 43x Recover Tactical Rail Holster, Suresh Raina Century, Convert N64 Controller To Usb, Belfast City Airport Destinations, Jamie Vardy Fifa 19 Rating, Good Things To Say About A Presentation, Gatorade Flavors, Ranked,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *